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Electromagnetic Compatibility Challenge in Industry 4.0 and 5.0

Nowadays, the development of industrial automation or the internet of things (IOT) in the industrial era 4.0 has been very rapid. In this era, equipment and technology in the industry can be controlled automatically by remote. The machines, equipment, sensors and operators are connected through the internet. In the future, this technology will increasingly develop into technologies that allow "personalization", which means that customers can customize whatever they want. This revolution is known as the 5.0 industrial era.

Both in the 4.0 or 5.0 industrial era, the transfer of large amounts of data and information is inevitable. Because of that a reliable and stable communication system has become very important whether using a LAN, fibre optic, wireless network or other communication networks, some equipment also integrated with communication device so that it can always connect to the internet or intranet network. An example is the smart TV that now is equipped with LAN or Wifi connection. This is very different from the condition of a few years ago when a television device could only receive and display terrestrial broadcasts without a connection to the internet. And there are many other devices that have become hybrids in order to communicate and connect via the internet network. Not only through cables – communication is also widely applied via wireless networks. The example are Bluetooth, Wifi and ZigBee which use 2.4 GHz as its operating frequency band.

On the other hand, the use of communication networks and automation will certainly increase noise or electromagnetic field exposure to the environment. Sharing of devices within this frequency range possibly will cause interference between the devices. Electromagnetic fields, even though they are not visible, can resonate with each other, and may affect not only the quality of the communication system but also the performance of other nearby devices. The higher the electromagnetic field generated to improve the performance of electronic devices in the vicinity, the higher the electromagnetic emission.

Several technical standards were published to anticipate this technology development. The main purpose is to provide a clear reference to conduct the test more efficiently without contradicting with other standards. For example, CISPR 32 (electromagnetic compatibility of multimedia equipment - emission requirements) replaces two standards at once, namely CISPR 22 (electromagnetic compatibility for information technology equipment -emission requirements) and CISPR 13 (electromagnetic compatibility for audio-video equipment- emission requirements).

Of course, the application of these standards must be supported by adequate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing laboratories. The ability of a testing laboratory in the electromagnetic field is very important because it aims to test the conformity of the quality of electronic products so it does nort emit high electromagnetic field and also must be able to withstand with the electromagnetic environment.

Therefore, testing technology, especially in the electromagnetic field for electronic devices, must prepare itself for the emergence of hybrid technology in industrial equipment applications, household electronic devices, medical devices, and other devices that also has IOT functions. This will have an impact on the frequency to be tested, any additional supporting tools or update of the test procedure.